‘The urge to classify things a human instinct; like predisposition to sin; it accompanies us into the world at birth and stays with us to the end’ ~ Tindall Hopwood

20 August 1858 :  The ‘Scientific era’ splits into ‘before’ and ‘after’ this day.  The most important scientific research paper in the history of biology,  “The theory of evolution by natural selection”, proposed by Charles Darwin & Alfred Russel Wallace, was published on this date in Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society: Zoology.


 Nymphoides hydrophylla Nymphoides hydrophylla (MENYANTHACEAE)

News @ Science: A science magazine is a periodical publication with news, opinions and reports about science, generally written for a non-expert audience. It is read by non-scientists and scientists who want accessible information on fields outside their specialization. Currently, many on-line magazines are available. on-print: Science Magazines; on-line: Discovery News, Science Daily , Science News, Discover Magazine , Biology News , Science magazine , Sci-Tech daily , Cosmos , Scientist CSIR India , National Geographic , Strange Science , Biology , Biodiversity

Research @ Science : Research is a scientific paradigm of problem solving process. The process starts from identifying a problem through reviewing related literature (secondary data – gathering facts, concepts, theory, previous findings), formulating hypotheses, preparing research design (sample selection, experimental tools etc), collecting data (primary data – execution process), analysing data (test hypotheses if any), interpreting data  and finally preparing research report. Rules of Research > Research Integrity

Ethics @ Research: Research ethics is specifically interested in the analysis of ethical issues that are raised when people are involved as participants in research. Basic necessities when engaging in research activity include Openness, Honesty, Integrity, Confidentiality, Social Responsibility, Competence, Respect for colleagues, Protect to Intellectual Property rights,  Animal and Human care, and Responsible publication and mentoring. The 3 main legal objectives are (1)  to protect human participants. (2) to ensure that research is conducted in a way that serves interests of individuals, groups and/or society as a whole. (3) to examine specific research activities and projects for their ethical soundness, looking at issues such as the management of risk, protection of confidentiality and the process of informed consent. (see REFERENCE)

Data @ Research: Data means facts and statistics collected together in the form of a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables. It  is measured, collected and reported, and analyzed, whereupon it can be visualized using graphs, images or other analysis tools.  Nature Index ; UIS  ; RDS ; Biology Data

Journals @ Research: Scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science, usually by reporting new research. Authentic sci-journals contain articles that have been peer reviewed, in an attempt to ensure that articles meet the journal’s standards of quality, and scientific validity. If the journal’s editor considers the paper appropriate, at least two researchers preferably from the same field check the paper for soundness of its scientific argument, and must agree to publish it.  Each such journal article becomes part of the permanent scientific record.  Scientific Journals > Leading journals: Science (published by AAAS) ~ on-line, Nature (published by SN) ~ on-line , Plant science journals


Citation @ Research: A ‘citation index ‘is a kind of bibliographic index, an index of citations between publications, allowing the user to easily establish which later documents cite which earlier documents. In 1960, Eugene Garfield’s Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) introduced the first citation index for papers published in academic journals, first the Science Citation Index (SCI) – [now Science Citation Index Expanded], and later the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI)  and the Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI).

  • Academic citation indexes include:> Web of Science by Thomson Reuters, accessed through the Web. > Scopus by Elsevier, available online only, which similarly combines subject searching with citation browsing and tracking in the sciences and social sciencesIndian Citation Index, the first of its kind in countryis an online citation data which covers peer reviewed journals published from India. It covers major subject areas such as scientific, technical, medical, and social sciences and includes arts and humanities.

Journals @ Impact factor : The impact factor (IF) of an academic journal is a measure reflecting the yearly average number of citations to recent articles published in that journal. The IF is used to compare different journals within a certain field. IFs calculated yearly starting from 1975 for those journals that are listed in the Journal Citation Reports. C a l c u l a t i o n: In any given year, the impact factor of a journal is the number of citations received by articles published in that journal during the two preceding years, divided by the total number of articles published in that journal during the two preceding years. > Biology Journal Impact Factor List Journal Impact Factor (JIF) & Journal Metrics , Journal Ranking (SJR), Science Citation Index (SCI)ENDNOTE , Journal Citation Report (JCR) 2015 (see REFERENCE)

Open Access @ Journals: Journals that are freely available in on-line to the researchers, and are usually financed by academic institutions or submitting authors. 3 kinds of journals: (1). Articles are entirely open (2). Some articles are open (3). Articles are in delayed access >  Current Science India, Phytokeys ,  DoAJ , AoB , Indian Journals , OAJSE , RIOAJ , Wiley Open ,  Springer Open , Elsevier Open , Oxford University Press , Sciencedirect

Open Access Repository : A digital platform that holds research output and provide free, immediate and permanent access to research results to anyone to use, download and distribute. see List of repositories > Science DirectROAR

Predatory Journals @ Open Access: An exploitative open-access publishing business model that involves charging publication fees to authors without providing the editorial and publishing services associated with authentic or accredited journals (open access or not). The scholars from developing countries are said to be especially at risk of becoming the victim of these practices. Sometimes, these journals are tagged with a ‘fake Impact Factor’. The list of  predatory publications are updated in “Beall’s List” 


Plagiarism Publication : Plagiarism is serious academic ethical offence in which stealing and publication of another author’s “language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions” and the representation of them as one’s own original work. The Detective applications > Plagiarism Checker, PlagScan , Plagiarism Detector

e-journals @ Botany : Scholarly academic journals that can be accessed via electronic transmission and are usually published on Web >  NaturePlants , NewPhytologist , PLOSBiology < Botany Journals

e-library @ Botany : Digital collection of freely accessible resources in a given academic field. see Digital library

  • Digital Library of India (DLI), an on-line project started in 2000, is a digital collection of freely accessible rare books collected from various libraries in India. It aims to archive all the significant literary, artistic and scientific works of mankind and to preserve digitally and make them available freely for every one over Internet for education, study, appreciation and for future generations. 
  • National Digital Library of India : An authentic repository of Educational materials 
  • INLIBNET : Information & Library Network Centre, an autonomous inter-university centre of UGC, India that developed an on-line gateway for India’s academic & Research communities for the easy access of national & international publications and recognised libraries of the world 

Useful links: Digital Book IndexBotanical Literature, Taxonomic Literature(TL)


BIOINFORMATICS : the art & science of computational biology


1. Bioinformatics Resource Portal & Links Directory

2. Plant Bioinformatics & Tools & sequence analysis softwares

3. Bioinformatics Hub & List of open source softwares

4. NCBI on biomedical and genomic information (GenBank)

5. DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ):  Biological database that collects DNA sequences.

6. Sequence Retrieval System (SRS) : Provide access to the databanks and tools from EBI

7. Biological databases & Genome Database > List of sequenced plant genomes , Wp

8. Proteopedia : Collaborative 3-D encyclopedia of proteins & other molecules

9. Protein Data Bank (PDB)Portal to Biological Macromolecular Structures

10. UniProt (Universal Protein Resource): Catalogue of protein information

11. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes & Genomes)

12. BRENDA : A comprehensive Enzyme information system

13. ExPASy : Comprehensive bioinformatics resource portal

14. PDB-101 : Educational portal of RCSB Protein Data Bank

15. IUCr : Official webpage of International Union of Crystallography



[Page updated in January 2016]


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